Strategy for Individualized Instruction
- Create rapport (when necessary, build confidence without
fostering dependency ).
- Set up an atmosphere conducive to self-disclosure. (Ask
student about learning style non-intrusively.)
- Ask student to clarify the assignment (role model time
planning; refer to course syllabus).
- Attend to clues about how the student learns. The student is
the best resource regarding his or her processing style. A problem
can take place in any one of the communication phases or
processing areas listed below while the other areas are intact.
- Consider the communication model (phase of mental act): 1.
reception; 2. elaboration (comprehending, reasoning, synthesizing,
analysing, etc.); 3. expression (verbal or written)
- Which processing areas required
by the assignment are strengths & which are deficits? Remember
the student is usually an excellent source of information
regarding how s/he learns.
- When planning a lesson or analyzing an assignment, ask the
question "What is required by this lesson?" Feuerstein's
Cognitive Map aids in the categorization
& definition of the components of mental acts. See if student
performance improves by altering one or more of the variables.
Gradually form a ladder from where the student is to the required
- Ask questions to lead student to discover logic of subject
(encourage student to think like an economist, biologist, author,
mathematician, counselor, etc.)
- Provide a systematic structure for learning; make
- University of Kansas Model (8 steps): pretest and obtain
commitment to learn, describe, model, verbal rehearsal,
controlled practice & feedback, grade-appropriate practice
& feedback, posttest and obtain commitment to generalize,
generalization: orientation, activation, maintenance
- Adaptation: find out where student is, explain and model
strategy, practice with easier material if possible, and then
move into grade-appropriate practice, set up for transfer or
use in other settings.
- Choose a strategy. Egs.: TOWER for writing; math study guide;
time management; study skills.
- Use a multi-modality presentation style:
- present information in strong modality
- compensate for student's weak area
- write steps down to compensate for auditory,
visual-motor and memory deficits
- allow time for verbal formulation to compensate for oral
- Individualize (suggest focus on areas: i.e. syntax, sentence
combining, vocabulary, problem solving methods, outlining,
notetaking, test preparation, memory, etc.).
- Research has shown the quality of feedback is the most
important factor in promoting student learning.
Evaluate & Extend
- Evaluate how strategy worked; set student up for transfer by
planning when strategy could be used (orientation). Acknowledge
effort made and benefits gained by continued practice.
- Summarize important points & ideas for future.
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